Japan`s main competition in the region is China, both of which have polar views on how Southeast Asia`s economy should develop. [Citation required] Before the TPP, Japan sought supremacy by creating the Asian Monetary Fund (MFA), which the United States blocked. Until 2011, Japan reached a cooperation agreement with China and Korea, known as the PRC-Japan-Republic of Korea Free Trade Agreement, also known as the CJK Free Trade Agreement, which did not include Japan`s intention to use the People`s Republic of China map to relocate TPP negotiations off Japan`s agenda with U.S. support.  Ratification in Japan required political reforms that shifted some authority from the Ministry of Agriculture to the Prime Minister.  On 9 December 2016, a decision on participation was taken in the House of Representatives and the closure of national ratification procedures at the treaty`s custodian (New Zealand) was the first country to be ratified on 20 January 2017.  Donald Trump criticized the TPP agreement as too long and complicated and said, “[i]t makes 5,600 pages, so complex that no one has read it.”  Senator Bernie Sanders accused the TPP of being much more than a free trade agreement.  It began with the P4 trade agreement between only four nations – Brunei, Chile, New Zealand and Singapore – which came into force in 2006. In return, the United States agreed to limit the tobacco trade. The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) has been at the heart of President Barack Obama`s strategic hub for Asia. Before President Donald J. Trump withdrew the United States in 2017, the TPP was to become the world`s largest free trade agreement, covering 40 percent of the world economy. This CFR context examines the economic impact of regional trade agreements and the NAFTA debate.
Most of the income increases would have been transferred to workers earning more than $87,000 a year. Free trade agreements contribute to income inequality in high-wage countries. They promote cheaper products from low-wage countries. Although the TPP was not adopted, the agreement had already introduced forms of regulatory cooperation for agriculture that went beyond those found at the WTO.  This means that regulators have come into contact and established trust among various signatories to the TPP.  Chad P. Bown, senior Fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics, argues that this regulatory cooperation has resulted in the U.S. poultry industry not being so hard hit by the 2015 avian influenza outbreak, as regulators in TPP countries cooperated and continued to accept U.S. poultry exports.  Many pro-TPP economists have recognized that extensive trade, while a net positive for growth, has drawbacks. Former Finance Minister Lawrence H.